German Reformers - 1

German Reformers - 1
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German Reformers (Luther, Pomeranus, Cruciger, Melanchthon) Here is a beautiful print of the German reformers Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, Pomeranus, and Caspar Cruciger. These were some of Lutherís closest companions. He would meet with them several hours each week to discuss theology in his home. It is out of these conversations that his famous book ďTable TalkĒ came from. Table Talk is available here: http://www.ccel.org/l/luther/table_talk/table_talk01.htm

† Pomeranus BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN (1485-1558), surnamed POMERANUS, German Protestant reformer, was born at Wollin near Stettin on the 24th of June 1485. At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a humanist, and in 1504 was appointed by the abbot of the Praemonstratensian monastery at Belbuck rector of the town school at Treptow. In 1509 he was ordained priest and became a vicar in the collegiate Marienkirche at Treptow; in 1517 he was appointed lecturer on the Bible and Church Fathers at the abbey school at Belbuck. In. 1520 Luthers De Captivitate Babylonica converted him into a zealous supporter of the Reformers views, to which he won over the abbot among others. In 1521 he went to Wittenberg, where he formed a close friendship with Luther and Melanchthon, and in 1522 he married. He preached -and lectured in the university, but his zeal and organizing skill soon spread his reforming influence far beyond its limits. In 1528 he arranged the church affairs of Brunswick and Hamburg; in 1530 those of Lubeck and Pomerania. In 1537 he was invited to Denmark by Christian III., and remained five years in that country, organizing the church (though only a presbyter, he consecrated the new Danish bishops) and schools. He passed the remainder of his life at Wittenberg, braving the perils of war and persecution rather than desert the place dear to him as the home of the Reformation. He died on the 20th of April 1558. Among his numerous works is a history of Pomerania, which remained unpublished till 1728. Perhaps his best book is the Inlerpretatio in Librum Psalmorum (I 523), and he is also remembered as having helped Luther in his translation of the Bible. ~From: http://1.1911encyclopedia.org/B/BU/BUGENHAGEN_JOHANN.htm



Caspar Cruciger (1504-1548) Cruciger was professor in Wittenberg and preacher in the Schloss Kirche, and stood very close to Luther. He was the stenograph of the Reformation, writing many of Lutherís sermons. Often when Luther was ill and the others away on the Visitations and at Diets, Cruciger was the only theologian in the town. In 1533 he was rector of the University for six months. Luther loved him for his learning, piety, and modesty. Cruciger was also the most versatile of the Reformers. He was always delicate, and died after an illness of three months in 1548. The day before he died Cruciger finished Lutherís Last Words of David. Crucigerís daughter married Lutherís son Johannes. Caspar and his wife Elisabeth were married by Johann Bugenhagen (i.e. Pomeranus) in 1524. ~From: http://www.godrules.net/library/luther/208luther1.htm

See also http://unterkunft.wittenberg.de/e/seiten/personen/cruciger.html

Phillip Melanchthon See Melanchthon's portrait for his biographical information. † Martin Luther See one of Luther's portraits for his biographical information. † Phillip Melanchthon (1497-1560) Melanchthon's Youth Philipp Schwarzerdt (Greek: Melanchthon ) was born February 16, 1497, in the house of his grandparents in Bretten, Germany. He was the first of five children (1499 Anna, 1500 or 1501 Georg, 1506 Margarete and 1508 Barbara). Melanchthon's father, Georg Schwarzerdt, was master of armory of electoral Saxony. His mother came from the well-to-do Reuter family of merchants. His grandfather saw that young Philipp, his brother Georg and two other grandsons had a strong education in Latin by hiring the tutor Johannes Unger from Pfortzheim. At school Philipp was the best student. He went on to learn Greek under Johannes Hiltebrant. His great-uncle, the humanist Johannes Reuchlin, in the humanist tradition, gave him the Greek name "Melanchthon." "Your name is Schwarzerdt (German for 'black earth'), you are a Greek, and so your new name shall be Greek. Thus I will call you Melanchthon, which means black earth." -- Johannes Reuchlin, March 5, 1509 University Education Reuchlin saw to it that Melanchthon was admitted to the University of Heidelberg at the age of twelve. About two years later, in 1511, at the age of fourteen, he received his BA. However, the following year, when Philipp applied to take the examinations for his MA, the professors were hesitant to allow him to continue, on the grounds that they thought the fifteen-year old could not possibly be accepted as a teacher. He did finish his studies at TŁbingen, and in January of 1514, he received the MA at seventeen. He was received by the faculty of philosophy and began teaching. He also began writing, which he was to continue doing for the rest of his life. Melanchthon was greatly influenced by humanism. At the age of nineteen even the famous Erasmus of Rotterdam recognized Melanchthon's many talents and spoke highly of him: "To what hopes does this young man or rather this boy, give rise! What acumen of innovation, what purity of language, what mature erudition!" -- Erasmus, 1516 Time Line 1497 Born in Bretten, Germany

1508 Latin education in Pforzheim

1509 Student in Heidelberg

1514 Masters degree, begins teaching

1517 Luther's 95 Theses spark the Reformation

1518 Professor of Greek at Wittenberg

1519 Accompanies Luther to debate at Leipzig

1520 Marriage to Katherina Krapp

1521 First edition Loci communes theologici

1522 Assists Luther in refining New Testament translation

1528 Melanchthon's Instruction to the Visitors concerning school reform

1529 Participates in the Marburg Colloquy

1530 Augsburg Confession presented to Charles V on June 25

1536 University reforms take place under Melanchthon

1546 Dr. Martin Luther dies on February 18

1547 Schmalkaldic War

1548 Interim introduced

1552 Interim ends

1555 Peace of Augsburg

1557 Melanchthon's wife dies on October 11, while he is in Worms

1560 Philipp Melanchthon dies on April 19 Wittenberg In 1518, the twenty-one-year-old Melanchthon was recommended by Johannes Reuchlin to Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony for the new chair of Greek literature at the elector's Wittenberg University (founded in 1502). On August 28 he gave his first lecture on "reforming the instruction of the youth." It was the beginning of a lifelong association for Melanchthon with the university. At Wittenberg Philipp Melanchthon studied theology under Dr. Martin Luther. In September 1519 he was granted his first degree in theology: baccalaureus biblicus . Melanchthon turned out to be a popular lecturer. And Luther, who was fourteen years his senior, recognized Melanchthon's remarkable abilities. Home Life "I am asked to get married because it is thought to be an improvement of my situation. If I knew that marriage would not disturb my work and my writing, I could easily decide in favor of it. For the time being, however, it will not happen." -- Philipp Melanchthon, 1519 Melanchthon's belief about marriage did not last long. In November 1520 he was married to Katharina Krapp, the daughter of the mayor of Wittenberg, Hieronymous Krapp. Their marriage was to last nearly 40 years, until the death of Katharina in 1557. There were four children (1522 Anna, 1525 Philipp, 1527 Georg, 1533 Magdalena).

Achievements Melanchthon also became involved in the administration of the Wittenberg university. In 1523-24 and 1538 he was rector. In 1535-36 and 1546-48 he was dean of the philosophical faculty. Beginning in 1555 Melanchthon gave lectures in world history. The resulting work was later published under another name. While Melanchthon was associated with the University of Wittenberg, it achieved world fame that lasted until the middle of the seventeenth century. On occasion over 2,000 students would attend his lectures. He is credited with the founding of schools, writing of textbooks and initiating of reforms. From: http://chi.lcms.org/melanchthon/

Other Online Resources: http://www.melanchthon.de/e/ (Information on Melanchthon) http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/wittenberg-melan.html (links to Melanchthonís works) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanchthon (Encyclopedia Entry) http://chi.lcms.org/melanchthon/ (Great resources celebrating the 500 th anniversary of Melanchthonís birth) http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc07/htm/ii.x.iv.htm (Schaff on Melanchthon) http://www.hfac.uh.edu/gbrown/philosophers/leibniz/BritannicaPages/Melanchthon/Melanchthon.html (A nice encyclopedia entry) http://www.melanchthon.com/melanchthonhouse.html (The Malanchthon House Museum)

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